Does Preparation Equal Prevention: Webinar Notes

Webinar Focus (0:18)

  • Examine the need to prepare for the possibility of someone entering our work, living, and leisure spaces with homicidal intent.
  • Achieving prevention through preparation and mitigation.

 

Resource Speakers (00:46)

  • Mark Warren

    • Co-founder, Vice President and Director for Training, Strategos International
    • Started in the US Army Military Police Corps, where he worked as an undercover operative, tactical team member, and instructor.
    • Involved in planning, implementing and executing high-risk arrests.
    • Served as the team leader for a multi-agency task force’s undercover operative.
    • Became a firearms use of force program manager.
    • Retired sergeant for a local agency.
    • Awardee, 2000 Missouri Post Part-Time Instructor of the Year.

 

Introduction (04:08)

  • Why Community Response Theory (04:08)

    • The shooter comes typically from the community.
    • He attacks a school, business, church, etc. made of people from the community.
    • The teachers, employees, faculty, and staff that work there are from the community.
    • Police, fire, and EMS that have to respond are from the community.
    • These incidents will affect the community from top to bottom so there has to be a complete community understanding of their individual roles in the overall preparation, prevention, response and recovery to an incident.
  • Three Phases of an Incident (07:06)

    • Prevention – WEBINAR FOCUS

      • Risk Identification

        • Awareness and the role it plays
        • Recognition
        • Assessment
        • Reporting
      • Communication

        • Physical Security Assessment
        • Planning:
        • Access Control
        • Visitor Management
        • Policies/Procedures
    • Response – scheduled for February 27, 2018

      • The Value of Time
      • Normalcy Bias/Denial
      • Response Methodologies
      • Lockdown
      • Lockdown Failure
      • Training and Drills
    • Recovery/Post-Incident – scheduled for April 10, 2018

      • Communication Capabilities
      • Memos of Understanding
      • Organized Evacuations
      • Transportation
      • EMS Role
      • Crisis Casualty Care
      • Reunification Areas
      • Debriefing Procedures
      • Counseling Services
  • Importance of the phases

    • If we can break every incident into the phases we can also figure out who plays a role in that portion.

 

Prevention (09:35)

  • Can these incidents be prevented?

    • Preparation DOES NOT equal Prevention but achieves…

      • Immediate and appropriate response
      • Quickly mitigates continued commission of crime
      • Deterrence in some circumstances
      • Possible recognition of the intentions PRIOR to commission of act
      • Reduces increased injury or loss of life
      • Reduces long-term effects of incident to those involved
      • Reduces overall liability
  • We do not prepare because of the FREQUENCY of the events. We prepare because of the negative IMPACT the event will have.

    • "It's not the will to win that matters—everyone has that. It's the will to prepare to win that matters." – Coach Paul “Bear” Bryant

      • Turn this into: "It's not the will to live that matters—everyone has that. It's the will to prepare to live that matters."
    • Overcoming denial is the first step.

 

Overview and Statistics (12:46)

  • Are these incidents an exception?

    • 11,613 Workplace homicide victims from 1992-2006
    • That’s 70 each month OR
    • More than 15 a week
    • An organization losing one person as a result of murder can debilitate the whole workforce.
  • Violence manifests in many forms

    • Around 1.7 Million Americans are harmed in the workplace per year

      • Emotional abuse
      • Bullying
      • Assault
      • Worst case scenario: Homicide
  • 2016 Fatalities & Injuries

    • Overall fatalities increased to over 5,000 – 7% increase and first time ever over 5,000 annually
    • Workplace Violence Fatalities & Injuries

      • WPV 2nd leading cause of fatalities – 866 incidents – 500 deaths (increase of 23% or 83 homicides)
      • Highest homicide rate since 2010
      • Suicides at work increased from 62 to 291 suicides – Highest number since census data began in 1992

        • Shooters tend to be suicidal homicidal
      • Overdose fatalities from non-medical use of drugs or alcohol increase to 217 which is 32% increase from 2015

        • Increasing 25% per year since 2012
    • Active Shooter Incidents Locations

      • 2015 Study conducted by the FBI involving 200 incidents.

        • 79, Businesses

          • 53, Businesses, open to pedestrian traffic
          • 26, Businesses, closed to pedestrian traffic
        • 30, Schools (PreK-12)
        • 21, Open spaces
        • 15, Institutes of higher education (colleges, universities)
        • 15, Government properties
        • 10, Residences
        • 9, Malls
        • 8, House of worship
        • 7, Military properties
        • 6, Healthcare facilities

 

Workplace Violence Identifying Risks (18:57)

  • Types of Workplace Violence

    • Violence by Strangers/Criminal

      • Perpetrator has no legitimate relation to workplace / on-site to commit robbery or other criminal act.
      • Perpetrator looking at Location, high crime area, high foot traffic area.
    • Violence by Customers/Clients

      • Violence involves assault or threat by someone who is either the recipient or the object of a service provided by the affected workplace or victim within the workplace.

        • Vendors
        • Deliveries
        • Postman
    • Violence by Co-Workers

      • Perpetrator has some employment-related involvement with the workplace.
      • Violence may be in retaliation for some perceived unfair treatment; lay-off; loss of promotion, etc.
    • Violence by Domestic Relationships gone bad – (estranged partners, spouses or relatives)

      • Perpetrator has personal relationship with victim.
      • Domestic or personal dispute that spills over into the workplace.
      • Protagonist is a family member or other person who has had a personal relationship with the employee outside of work.
    • Violence by an Ideological Attackers (terrorist-type of incidents)

      • The ideological killer is driven by adherence to ethico-political or religious orthodoxy. His actions are an expression of that orthodoxy.
      • Like the active shooter, the ideological killer plans multiple murders within the confines of a single event but the ideological killer does not seek to experience the horror at close distance.
      • He plants explosive devices or takes up a position as a sniper. Killing at a distance suits his primary motive. For the ideological killer, victims are of incidental significance.
  • Contributing factors to workplace violence could be:

    • Downsizing
    • Re-organizing departments
    • Layoffs
    • Growth of technology
    • Recession
    • Mergers
    • Unemployment
    • Fear of losing job
    • Outsourcing labor
    • Reprimands for violations of company rules
    • Poor work performance reviews
    • Trouble with interpersonal relationships and working with others
    • Abusive management practices
    • Understaffing

      • Almost all organizations have a few of these going on
  • Cost to the Organization

    • General repercussions

      • There can be the immediate and profound loss of life
      • The physical or psychological repercussions felt by the victim as well as the victim’s family, friends, and co-workers.
      • The loss of productivity and morale
      • The public relations impact, reputations
    • Actual statistics (from DOJ)

      • Victims of violence in the workplace miss 1.8 million days of work each year
      • Resulting in more than $55 million in lost wages
      • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimates the annual cost of workplace violence for employers to be close to $121 billion.
    • Direct Loss to the Organization

      • Lost productivity
      • Worker’s Compensation payments

        • Employers are responsible for providing a safe working environment for the employees.
      • Property damage

        • Cannot operate if it’s a crime scene
      • Lost Sales
      • Medical Costs
      • Legal Fees

        • E.g., MGM Grand being sued by the victims regarding the recent Las Vegas shooting.
      • Physical Security Measures
      • Counseling
    • Indirect Loss to the Organization

      • Reputation – through the news
      • Business relationships
      • People/experience

        • Retention of experienced employees and acquisition costs
      • Business location

 

All Hazards Approach to Risk (34:52)

  • Hazard Identification – Hazards

    • Fire
    • Explosion
    • Natural hazards
    • Hazardous material spill or release
    • Terrorism
    • Workplace violence
    • Pandemic disease
    • Utility outage
    • Mechanical breakdown
    • Supplier failure
    • Cyber attack
  • Vulnerability Assessment – Assets at Risk

    • People

      • Foremost, everything else can be replaced, except for life.
    • Property including buildings and critical infrastructure
    • Supply chain
    • Systems/equipment
    • Information technology
    • Business operations
    • Reputation of or confidence in entity
    • Regulatory and contractual obligations
    • Environment
  • Impact Analysis – Impacts

    • Casualties
    • Property damage
    • Business interruption
    • Loss of customers
    • Financial loss
    • Environmental contamination
    • Loss of confidence in the organization
    • Fines and penalties
    • Lawsuits
  • Sample Risk Matrix

    • Factors

      • Frequency/likelihood of the hazard happening

        • 1 – Extremely unlikely
        • 2 – Remote Possibility
        • 3 – Possibly occur
        • 4 – Wil probably occur
        • 5 – Almost certain
      • Impact/severity of the potential damage

        • 1 – Insignificant damage to property/equipment, minor injury
        • 2 – None reportable injury, minor loss of process, slight damage to property
        • 3 – Reportable injury, moderate loss of process, limited damage to property
        • 4 – Major injury, single fatality, critical loss of process, critical damage to property
        • 5 – Multiple fatalities, catastrophic loss of business
    • Ratings – Multiplying the assigned numbers of frequency by impact

      • Green, 0-5: Low Risk

        • Acceptable to take that risk
        • Almost certain to happen but with insignificant damage
      • Yellow, 6-10: Moderate Risk

        • Acceptable risk if there is a mitigating action
        • It could happen but we have a mitigation process in place
      • Red, 11-15: High Risk
      • Bright Red, 16-25: Extremely High Risk

 

Awareness Philosophy (39:10)

  • You cannot prevent anything if you are not aware something may happen.
  • Body language

    • Most human behavior is preceded by body language, verbal clues & behavioral indicators of advance warning of future intentions.
    • Almost all of our daily communication is done through body language.
    • Bad behavior is preceded by bad body language.
    • Women are better at understanding body language.
  • De-escalating through education and diligence

    • A state of “awareness” through education & diligence allows us to prevent or de-escalate and to mitigate crisis situations that are in progress or have already occurred.
  • Awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects and developing circumstances.

    • Using all senses constantly and trusting it.

      • Lets you familiarize with what’s normal and what isn’t.
  • "There is no known profile of an active killer.”

    • After studying 37 school shootings, the US Secret Service found out that there was no known profile.
    • But after the incidents, people come out saying that they knew something’s up with the shooter, they only didn’t act on what they sensed as peculiarity.
  • Pre-Incident Indicators (The Gift of Fear, Gavin De Becker)

    • Inflexibility
    • Weapons

      • Somebody that talks about weapons a lot and focuses on the weapon.
      • Owns a weapon
    • Sadness
    • Hopelessness
    • Identification

      • E.g., While watching the news of a shooting incident and hearing the details of the suspect, a person who empathizes with a mass shooter.
    • Co-worker fear – Someone we walk on eggshells around
    • Paranoia – Believes someone is after them
    • Criticism – Can’t accept criticism
    • Contact – Supervisors, managers have some form of contact with them
    • Blame – Blames others for failures
    • Unreasonable expectations
    • Grievance/perceived grievance
    • Police encounters

      • Most people have limited contact with the police, then there’s the person who is in constant contact with the cops.
    • Media Focus – when there’s an incident, they’re focused on the media coverage

 

Concealment Characteristics and Mindset (49:27)

  • Questions to continually ask and answer

    • Clothing appropriate to weather?

      • If it’s warm, why would he wear a trench coat?
      • The weapon determines his plan, depending on what he can get in or get away with – thus the need to conceal it through clothes
    • Clothing appropriate to work environment?

      • E.g., usually comes in a briefcase, now carries a gym bag
    • Typical weapon location for shooter?

      • Concealed in the torso area
      • 93% of the population is right-handed – thus must be accessible to the right hand

 

Communication Plan (53:23)

  • Clear and Concise Announcement – No Codes

    • “We have a threat inside/outside”
    • Create redundancy

      • Everyone has to hear it, and in every area.
    • Methods:

      • Voice Announcement – “Paul Revere Method”

        • Most efficient, fastest to spread information
      • Internal Intercom – Recorded or live
      • Visual Notification – Message Boards, Strobe Lights

        • For hearing impaired personnel
      • Wide Area Mass Notification System – Outdoor Speakers

        • Multiple buildings
        • Recreational areas
      • Electronic Mass Notifications

        • Mobile app (Crisis GO, Everbridge, etc)

          • Communicate with employees/students, etc.
          • Keep database for attendance, emergency contacts, etc.

 

Conduct a Physical Security Assessment (57:04)

  • Defense in Layers:

    • Barriers and locks
    • Electronic access controls

      • Fail-Safe – when the power is out, puts the doors into open ‘safe’ mode.
      • Fail-Secure – when the power is out, puts the doors into locked mode.
    • Intrusion detection systems
    • Surveillance cameras

      • Gives a false sense of security
      • If no one is monitoring them, they’re only good for collecting information
    • Protective lighting
    • Security by Design (CPTED)
    • Visitor Management

      • How to screen people coming into your organization on a daily basis.
    • Restricted Access areas
  • Doing physical assessment

    • In an intruder response perspective
    • Higher level of security without overriding corporate core values and mission
    • A good resource to start a Physical Security Assessment is: www.ready.gov/risk-assessment
    • Conduct a Business Impact Analysis: https://www.ready.gov/business-impact-analysis

 

Planning (1:02:28)

  • Prepare an Emergency Response Plan

    • Ask for references and resources
    • Plan should be short and concise
  • Detail the Incident Command Structure

    • Often overlooked. Don’t expect police to be responsible for and provide everything.
  • Provide for Response and Recovery Planning

    • It doesn’t end when the incident ends
  • Policies – Organizational priorities/Procedures – how to accomplish the tasks
  • Access Control
  • Signage
  • Create Threat Assessment Teams

    • Investigate threat as a team
    • If one individual, they could be wrong
  • Identify an Emergency Operations Center
  • Identify Emergency Evacuation Assembly Area

    • Not the same as fire which is just outside the building, into an open area.
    • If it’s active shooter/weather related – you might be endangering people more if they’ll be in an open area.
  • Work with Local Emergency Responders

    • Police, Fire, EMS, community, etc.
    • Inform them about your security measures in place (e.g., controlled access building, impact resistant film windows, provide keys, access, etc.).
  • Plan for accounting for all employees, contractors, guests
  • FEMA – Five stages to consider during the planning process:

    • Developing the crisis management team
    • Assessing the situation
    • Determining objectives and goals

      • E.g., Prevent loss of life, asset recovery, etc.
    • Developing, preparing, reviewing and approving the plan
    • Implementing and maintaining the plan

      • Cannot be written and put on a shelf, unchanged.
      • The people you’re making a plan for are already working on a way to overcome your plan.

 

Seeing from the Three Perspectives (1:07:41)

  • Suspect Actions

    • Look at it from the suspect’s perspective

      • E.g., Sandy Hook Elementary School invested in a controlled-access building prior the attack.

        • The month prior the attack, they conducted a lockdown drill.
        • When they locked the exterior doors, the suspect shot the glass and created his own door in.
    • What did the suspect do that was different or provided an opportunity for greater success:

      • Prevent Ingress-chain the doors closed preventing LE access
      • Prevent Egress-chain the doors closed to prevent victims escape
    • Suspects are studying previous incidents to learn to be more effective
    • Suspects control: Time, Location and Method of attack

      • Put systems in place that prevent or make him change suspects’ methodology
    • What was suspect’s relationship to the attack location?
    • Look for leakage

      • Things said to others
      • Social media accounts
    • While there is no known profile there are always behavioral indicators
    • Perceived grievance
  • Victims/Witness Actions

    • Victim/Witness Actions (True First Responders):

      • Awareness-how did they perceive the incident at the start?
      • Normalcy Bias/Denial
      • Self-Direction
      • Behavioral Indicators – What people knew about the suspect
      • Proper response or improper response
      • Trained vs. Untrained
    • Police Responder Actions (Professional First Responders)

      • Mission
      • Tactics
      • Response
      • EMS
  • Visitor Management

    • Proper sign in and vetting of visitors

      • Ask for a government ID
    • Visitor ID tags visible
    • Employees trained to approach visitors through aggressive friendliness
    • Assists in accountability
  • Prevention/Response Training for personnel:

    • Awareness
    • Behavioral Indicators
    • Reporting

      • How and what to report
      • Who to report it to
    • Communication
    • De-escalation Training
    • Workplace Violence Training

 

Intruder Response within the Workplace with Strategos (1:14:35)

  • Realities of Intruder Response:

    • Preparation is EVERYONE’s responsibility

      • Law Enforcement/Security Personnel
      • Organization Leadership
      • Individual
  • Strategos Solutions for Intruder Response Preparedness

    • Intruder Response Focused Physical Security Assessments
    • Workplace Violence Program Review/Development
    • Intruder Response Policy Development
    • Intruder Response “3 OUT” Floor Plan Chart Development
    • IN PERSON Training

      • 1 hr., 2 hr. and 4 hr. versions for first contact personnel, base

line personnel and leadership/safety preparedness personnel

  • Scenarios included in above training courses so participants
  • can practice what they have learned in the training
  • Strategos Protection Solutions

    • High-Risk Terminations – Consultation & Highly Trained Protectors
    • Executive Protection – Situational, Board Meetings, Threats, Full-Time, Seasonal, Shareholder Meetings, Travel Escorts
    • Surveillance – Theft, Fraud, Work Comp, etc.
    • Investigations – Theft, Fraud, Work Comp, etc.
    • Post Crisis Protection (Natural Crisis and Man Made Crisis Response
Additional Resources
7 months ago
Does Preparation Equal Prevention? Why Prepare for an Intruder Response Incident
Watching the news, we often hear people saying that they did not expect something terrible to hap […]
9 months ago
Does Preparation Equal Prevention: An Interview with Mark Warren
None of us want to believe an intruder will invade our workplaces and cause murder or mayhem. But […]
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