Webinar Focus (0:18)
- Examine the need to prepare for the possibility of someone entering our work, living, and leisure spaces with homicidal intent.
- Achieving prevention through preparation and mitigation.
Resource Speakers (00:46)
- Co-founder, Vice President and Director for Training, Strategos International
- Started in the US Army Military Police Corps, where he worked as an undercover operative, tactical team member, and instructor.
- Involved in planning, implementing and executing high-risk arrests.
- Served as the team leader for a multi-agency task force’s undercover operative.
- Became a firearms use of force program manager.
- Retired sergeant for a local agency.
- Awardee, 2000 Missouri Post Part-Time Instructor of the Year.
Why Community Response Theory (04:08)
- The shooter comes typically from the community.
- He attacks a school, business, church, etc. made of people from the community.
- The teachers, employees, faculty, and staff that work there are from the community.
- Police, fire, and EMS that have to respond are from the community.
- These incidents will affect the community from top to bottom so there has to be a complete community understanding of their individual roles in the overall preparation, prevention, response and recovery to an incident.
Three Phases of an Incident (07:06)
Prevention – WEBINAR FOCUS
- Awareness and the role it plays
- Physical Security Assessment
- Access Control
- Visitor Management
- Risk Identification
Response – scheduled for February 27, 2018
- The Value of Time
- Normalcy Bias/Denial
- Response Methodologies
- Lockdown Failure
- Training and Drills
Recovery/Post-Incident – scheduled for April 10, 2018
- Communication Capabilities
- Memos of Understanding
- Organized Evacuations
- EMS Role
- Crisis Casualty Care
- Reunification Areas
- Debriefing Procedures
- Counseling Services
- Prevention – WEBINAR FOCUS
Importance of the phases
- If we can break every incident into the phases we can also figure out who plays a role in that portion.
Can these incidents be prevented?
Preparation DOES NOT equal Prevention but achieves…
- Immediate and appropriate response
- Quickly mitigates continued commission of crime
- Deterrence in some circumstances
- Possible recognition of the intentions PRIOR to commission of act
- Reduces increased injury or loss of life
- Reduces long-term effects of incident to those involved
- Reduces overall liability
- Preparation DOES NOT equal Prevention but achieves…
We do not prepare because of the FREQUENCY of the events. We prepare because of the negative IMPACT the event will have.
"It's not the will to win that matters—everyone has that. It's the will to prepare to win that matters." – Coach Paul “Bear” Bryant
- Turn this into: "It's not the will to live that matters—everyone has that. It's the will to prepare to live that matters."
- Overcoming denial is the first step.
- "It's not the will to win that matters—everyone has that. It's the will to prepare to win that matters." – Coach Paul “Bear” Bryant
Overview and Statistics (12:46)
Are these incidents an exception?
- 11,613 Workplace homicide victims from 1992-2006
- That’s 70 each month OR
- More than 15 a week
- An organization losing one person as a result of murder can debilitate the whole workforce.
Violence manifests in many forms
Around 1.7 Million Americans are harmed in the workplace per year
- Emotional abuse
- Worst case scenario: Homicide
- Around 1.7 Million Americans are harmed in the workplace per year
2016 Fatalities & Injuries
- Overall fatalities increased to over 5,000 – 7% increase and first time ever over 5,000 annually
Workplace Violence Fatalities & Injuries
- WPV 2nd leading cause of fatalities – 866 incidents – 500 deaths (increase of 23% or 83 homicides)
- Highest homicide rate since 2010
Suicides at work increased from 62 to 291 suicides – Highest number since census data began in 1992
- Shooters tend to be suicidal homicidal
Overdose fatalities from non-medical use of drugs or alcohol increase to 217 which is 32% increase from 2015
- Increasing 25% per year since 2012
Active Shooter Incidents Locations
2015 Study conducted by the FBI involving 200 incidents.
- 53, Businesses, open to pedestrian traffic
- 26, Businesses, closed to pedestrian traffic
- 30, Schools (PreK-12)
- 21, Open spaces
- 15, Institutes of higher education (colleges, universities)
- 15, Government properties
- 10, Residences
- 9, Malls
- 8, House of worship
- 7, Military properties
- 6, Healthcare facilities
- 79, Businesses
- 2015 Study conducted by the FBI involving 200 incidents.
Workplace Violence Identifying Risks (18:57)
Types of Workplace Violence
Violence by Strangers/Criminal
- Perpetrator has no legitimate relation to workplace / on-site to commit robbery or other criminal act.
- Perpetrator looking at Location, high crime area, high foot traffic area.
Violence by Customers/Clients
Violence involves assault or threat by someone who is either the recipient or the object of a service provided by the affected workplace or victim within the workplace.
- Violence involves assault or threat by someone who is either the recipient or the object of a service provided by the affected workplace or victim within the workplace.
Violence by Co-Workers
- Perpetrator has some employment-related involvement with the workplace.
- Violence may be in retaliation for some perceived unfair treatment; lay-off; loss of promotion, etc.
Violence by Domestic Relationships gone bad – (estranged partners, spouses or relatives)
- Perpetrator has personal relationship with victim.
- Domestic or personal dispute that spills over into the workplace.
- Protagonist is a family member or other person who has had a personal relationship with the employee outside of work.
Violence by an Ideological Attackers (terrorist-type of incidents)
- The ideological killer is driven by adherence to ethico-political or religious orthodoxy. His actions are an expression of that orthodoxy.
- Like the active shooter, the ideological killer plans multiple murders within the confines of a single event but the ideological killer does not seek to experience the horror at close distance.
- He plants explosive devices or takes up a position as a sniper. Killing at a distance suits his primary motive. For the ideological killer, victims are of incidental significance.
- Violence by Strangers/Criminal
Contributing factors to workplace violence could be:
- Re-organizing departments
- Growth of technology
- Fear of losing job
- Outsourcing labor
- Reprimands for violations of company rules
- Poor work performance reviews
- Trouble with interpersonal relationships and working with others
- Abusive management practices
- Almost all organizations have a few of these going on
Cost to the Organization
- There can be the immediate and profound loss of life
- The physical or psychological repercussions felt by the victim as well as the victim’s family, friends, and co-workers.
- The loss of productivity and morale
- The public relations impact, reputations
Actual statistics (from DOJ)
- Victims of violence in the workplace miss 1.8 million days of work each year
- Resulting in more than $55 million in lost wages
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimates the annual cost of workplace violence for employers to be close to $121 billion.
Direct Loss to the Organization
- Lost productivity
Worker’s Compensation payments
- Employers are responsible for providing a safe working environment for the employees.
- Cannot operate if it’s a crime scene
- Lost Sales
- Medical Costs
- E.g., MGM Grand being sued by the victims regarding the recent Las Vegas shooting.
- Physical Security Measures
Indirect Loss to the Organization
- Reputation – through the news
- Business relationships
- Retention of experienced employees and acquisition costs
- Business location
- General repercussions
All Hazards Approach to Risk (34:52)
Hazard Identification – Hazards
- Natural hazards
- Hazardous material spill or release
- Workplace violence
- Pandemic disease
- Utility outage
- Mechanical breakdown
- Supplier failure
- Cyber attack
Vulnerability Assessment – Assets at Risk
- Foremost, everything else can be replaced, except for life.
- Property including buildings and critical infrastructure
- Supply chain
- Information technology
- Business operations
- Reputation of or confidence in entity
- Regulatory and contractual obligations
Impact Analysis – Impacts
- Property damage
- Business interruption
- Loss of customers
- Financial loss
- Environmental contamination
- Loss of confidence in the organization
- Fines and penalties
Sample Risk Matrix
Frequency/likelihood of the hazard happening
- 1 – Extremely unlikely
- 2 – Remote Possibility
- 3 – Possibly occur
- 4 – Wil probably occur
- 5 – Almost certain
Impact/severity of the potential damage
- 1 – Insignificant damage to property/equipment, minor injury
- 2 – None reportable injury, minor loss of process, slight damage to property
- 3 – Reportable injury, moderate loss of process, limited damage to property
- 4 – Major injury, single fatality, critical loss of process, critical damage to property
- 5 – Multiple fatalities, catastrophic loss of business
- Frequency/likelihood of the hazard happening
Ratings – Multiplying the assigned numbers of frequency by impact
Green, 0-5: Low Risk
- Acceptable to take that risk
- Almost certain to happen but with insignificant damage
Yellow, 6-10: Moderate Risk
- Acceptable risk if there is a mitigating action
- It could happen but we have a mitigation process in place
- Red, 11-15: High Risk
- Bright Red, 16-25: Extremely High Risk
- Green, 0-5: Low Risk
Awareness Philosophy (39:10)
- You cannot prevent anything if you are not aware something may happen.
- Most human behavior is preceded by body language, verbal clues & behavioral indicators of advance warning of future intentions.
- Almost all of our daily communication is done through body language.
- Bad behavior is preceded by bad body language.
- Women are better at understanding body language.
De-escalating through education and diligence
- A state of “awareness” through education & diligence allows us to prevent or de-escalate and to mitigate crisis situations that are in progress or have already occurred.
Awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects and developing circumstances.
Using all senses constantly and trusting it.
- Lets you familiarize with what’s normal and what isn’t.
- Using all senses constantly and trusting it.
"There is no known profile of an active killer.”
- After studying 37 school shootings, the US Secret Service found out that there was no known profile.
- But after the incidents, people come out saying that they knew something’s up with the shooter, they only didn’t act on what they sensed as peculiarity.
Pre-Incident Indicators (The Gift of Fear, Gavin De Becker)
- Somebody that talks about weapons a lot and focuses on the weapon.
- Owns a weapon
- E.g., While watching the news of a shooting incident and hearing the details of the suspect, a person who empathizes with a mass shooter.
- Co-worker fear – Someone we walk on eggshells around
- Paranoia – Believes someone is after them
- Criticism – Can’t accept criticism
- Contact – Supervisors, managers have some form of contact with them
- Blame – Blames others for failures
- Unreasonable expectations
- Grievance/perceived grievance
- Most people have limited contact with the police, then there’s the person who is in constant contact with the cops.
- Media Focus – when there’s an incident, they’re focused on the media coverage
Concealment Characteristics and Mindset (49:27)
Questions to continually ask and answer
Clothing appropriate to weather?
- If it’s warm, why would he wear a trench coat?
- The weapon determines his plan, depending on what he can get in or get away with – thus the need to conceal it through clothes
Clothing appropriate to work environment?
- E.g., usually comes in a briefcase, now carries a gym bag
Typical weapon location for shooter?
- Concealed in the torso area
- 93% of the population is right-handed – thus must be accessible to the right hand
- Clothing appropriate to weather?
Communication Plan (53:23)
Clear and Concise Announcement – No Codes
- “We have a threat inside/outside”
- Everyone has to hear it, and in every area.
Voice Announcement – “Paul Revere Method”
- Most efficient, fastest to spread information
- Internal Intercom – Recorded or live
Visual Notification – Message Boards, Strobe Lights
- For hearing impaired personnel
Wide Area Mass Notification System – Outdoor Speakers
- Multiple buildings
- Recreational areas
Electronic Mass Notifications
Mobile app (Crisis GO, Everbridge, etc)
- Communicate with employees/students, etc.
- Keep database for attendance, emergency contacts, etc.
- Mobile app (Crisis GO, Everbridge, etc)
- Voice Announcement – “Paul Revere Method”
Conduct a Physical Security Assessment (57:04)
Defense in Layers:
- Barriers and locks
Electronic access controls
- Fail-Safe – when the power is out, puts the doors into open ‘safe’ mode.
- Fail-Secure – when the power is out, puts the doors into locked mode.
- Intrusion detection systems
- Gives a false sense of security
- If no one is monitoring them, they’re only good for collecting information
- Protective lighting
- Security by Design (CPTED)
- How to screen people coming into your organization on a daily basis.
- Restricted Access areas
Doing physical assessment
- In an intruder response perspective
- Higher level of security without overriding corporate core values and mission
- A good resource to start a Physical Security Assessment is: www.ready.gov/risk-assessment
- Conduct a Business Impact Analysis: https://www.ready.gov/business-impact-analysis
Prepare an Emergency Response Plan
- Ask for references and resources
- Plan should be short and concise
Detail the Incident Command Structure
- Often overlooked. Don’t expect police to be responsible for and provide everything.
Provide for Response and Recovery Planning
- It doesn’t end when the incident ends
- Policies – Organizational priorities/Procedures – how to accomplish the tasks
- Access Control
Create Threat Assessment Teams
- Investigate threat as a team
- If one individual, they could be wrong
- Identify an Emergency Operations Center
Identify Emergency Evacuation Assembly Area
- Not the same as fire which is just outside the building, into an open area.
- If it’s active shooter/weather related – you might be endangering people more if they’ll be in an open area.
Work with Local Emergency Responders
- Police, Fire, EMS, community, etc.
- Inform them about your security measures in place (e.g., controlled access building, impact resistant film windows, provide keys, access, etc.).
- Plan for accounting for all employees, contractors, guests
FEMA – Five stages to consider during the planning process:
- Developing the crisis management team
- Assessing the situation
Determining objectives and goals
- E.g., Prevent loss of life, asset recovery, etc.
- Developing, preparing, reviewing and approving the plan
Implementing and maintaining the plan
- Cannot be written and put on a shelf, unchanged.
- The people you’re making a plan for are already working on a way to overcome your plan.
Seeing from the Three Perspectives (1:07:41)
Look at it from the suspect’s perspective
E.g., Sandy Hook Elementary School invested in a controlled-access building prior the attack.
- The month prior the attack, they conducted a lockdown drill.
- When they locked the exterior doors, the suspect shot the glass and created his own door in.
- E.g., Sandy Hook Elementary School invested in a controlled-access building prior the attack.
What did the suspect do that was different or provided an opportunity for greater success:
- Prevent Ingress-chain the doors closed preventing LE access
- Prevent Egress-chain the doors closed to prevent victims escape
- Suspects are studying previous incidents to learn to be more effective
Suspects control: Time, Location and Method of attack
- Put systems in place that prevent or make him change suspects’ methodology
- What was suspect’s relationship to the attack location?
Look for leakage
- Things said to others
- Social media accounts
- While there is no known profile there are always behavioral indicators
- Perceived grievance
- Look at it from the suspect’s perspective
Victim/Witness Actions (True First Responders):
- Awareness-how did they perceive the incident at the start?
- Normalcy Bias/Denial
- Behavioral Indicators – What people knew about the suspect
- Proper response or improper response
- Trained vs. Untrained
Police Responder Actions (Professional First Responders)
- Victim/Witness Actions (True First Responders):
Proper sign in and vetting of visitors
- Ask for a government ID
- Visitor ID tags visible
- Employees trained to approach visitors through aggressive friendliness
- Assists in accountability
- Proper sign in and vetting of visitors
Prevention/Response Training for personnel:
- Behavioral Indicators
- How and what to report
- Who to report it to
- De-escalation Training
- Workplace Violence Training
Intruder Response within the Workplace with Strategos (1:14:35)
Realities of Intruder Response:
Preparation is EVERYONE’s responsibility
- Law Enforcement/Security Personnel
- Organization Leadership
- Preparation is EVERYONE’s responsibility
Strategos Solutions for Intruder Response Preparedness
- Intruder Response Focused Physical Security Assessments
- Workplace Violence Program Review/Development
- Intruder Response Policy Development
- Intruder Response “3 OUT” Floor Plan Chart Development
IN PERSON Training
- 1 hr., 2 hr. and 4 hr. versions for first contact personnel, base
line personnel and leadership/safety preparedness personnel
- Scenarios included in above training courses so participants
- can practice what they have learned in the training
Strategos Protection Solutions
- High-Risk Terminations – Consultation & Highly Trained Protectors
- Executive Protection – Situational, Board Meetings, Threats, Full-Time, Seasonal, Shareholder Meetings, Travel Escorts
- Surveillance – Theft, Fraud, Work Comp, etc.
- Investigations – Theft, Fraud, Work Comp, etc.
- Post Crisis Protection (Natural Crisis and Man Made Crisis Response